CFT Full Form – What Is CFT, Definition, Meaning, Uses

CFT Full Form Friends, in this Artical, we’ll look at the full form of CFT. The complement fixation test is an immunological medical test that can be used to determine the presence of a certain antibody or antigen in a patient’s serum depending on whether or not complement fixation occurs. It was commonly used to diagnose infections, especially those caused by bacteria that were difficult to detect using culture methods, as well as rheumatic illnesses. However, in clinical diagnostics labs, alternative serological methods such as ELISA and DNA-based pathogen detection methods, particularly PCR, have essentially supplanted it.

CFT Full Form

CFT: Completion Fixation Test

CFT Full Form
CFT Full Form

Completion Fixation Test is the full form of CFT. Completion Fixation Test is an abbreviation for Completion Fixation Test. It is one of the most common conventional tests (clinical examination of blood serum) for detecting antibodies in a person’s blood serum, depending on whether or not a diagnosis is made. CFT is mostly used to determine whether or not an infection exists. Wasserman first presented it in 1909. It was initially widely utilized in the field of syphilis serology.

What is CFT?

It is one of the most used tests for detecting antibodies in a person’s blood serum. It’s used to find out if you’re infected. Wasserman discovered it in 1909, and we use it to detect syphilis, which is also known as the Wasserman test. When there is a reaction between the antigen and the antibody, a complement is a sort of protein found in our normal blood serum that binds the antigen and antibody complex together.

What is Complement Fixation, and how does it work?

Complement fixation occurs when antibody and antigen are introduced to the complement.

What are some of the benefits of CFT?

It has a number of advantages, including:

  • These tests can detect viral and bacterial illnesses in a big population or even a small number of people at the same time.
  • This is a very inexpensive and straightforward test.

Process – CFT Full Form

The complement system is a group of serum proteins that bind to antigen-antibody complexes and react with them. If this reaction takes place on a cell’s surface, it will result in the creation of trans-membrane holes and, as a result, the cell will be destroyed. The following are the basic steps in a complement fixation test.

The patient’s serum is separated.

Complement proteins are found in varying amounts in the blood of patients. The complement proteins in the patient’s serum must be eliminated and replaced with a predetermined amount of standardized complement proteins to negate any impact on the test.

  • The serum is heated to the point where all of the complement proteins are destroyed but none of the antibodies are. (This is due to the fact that complement proteins are far more vulnerable to heat than antibodies.)
  • The serum is spiked with a known amount of standard complement proteins. (Guinea pig serum is usually used to obtain these proteins.)
  • The serum is infused with the antigen of interest.
  • The serum contains sheep red blood cells (sRBCs) that have been pre-bound to anti-sRBC antibodies. If the solution turns pink at this stage, the test is negative; otherwise, it is positive.

Antibodies against the antigen of interest in the patient’s serum will bind to the antigen in step 3 to produce antigen-antibody complexes. Complement proteins will be depleted as a result of their reactions with these complexes. There will be no complement left in the serum when the sRBC-antibody complexes are introduced in step 4. If no antibodies are present against the antigen of interest, the complement will not be depleted and will react with the sRBC-antibody complexes supplied in step 4, lysing the sRBCs and spilling their contents into the solution, coloring the solution pink.

Antigen-based testing – CFT Full Form

While antibody detection is the most common test, antigen detection is also feasible. In this case, a particular antibody is added to the patient’s serum to encourage the formation of complexes; complement and the indicator RBC are added as before.

Testing that is semi-quantitative

Setting up a series of dilutions of patient serum and establishing the largest dilution factor that still yields a positive CF test can make the test quantitative. The titer corresponds to this dilution factor.

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